Archive for AAS

The AAS goes for Gold

Posted in Open Access, The Universe and Stuff with tags , , , , , , on September 2, 2021 by telescoper

Yesterday there was a big announcement from the American Astronomical Society (AAS) , namely that all its journals will switch to Open Access from 1st January 2022. This transition will affect the Astronomical Journal (AJ), the Astrophysical Journal (ApJ), Astrophysical Journal Letters (ApJL), and the Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (ApJS). Previously authors were able to opt for Open Access but from next year it will apply to all papers.

The positive aspect to this change is that it makes articles published by the AAS freely available to the public and other scientists without requiring the payment of a subscription.

On the other hand, these journals will require authors to pay a hefty sum, equivalent to an Article Processing Charge (APC), that increases with the length and complexity of a paper. AAS journals have in the past levied “page charges” from authors for standard (non-OA) publications. In the new regime these are merged into a unified scheme. Here is a summary of the rates.

What’s on offer is therefore a form of Gold Open Access that switches the cost of publication from subscribers to authors. In my view this level of APC is excessive, which is why I call this Fool’s Gold Open Access. Although the AAS is a not-for-profit organization, its journals are published by the Institute of Physics Publishing which is a definitely-for-profit organization.

The Open Journal of Astrophysics charges neither subscribers nor authors; this form of Open Access is usually called Diamond or Platinum Open Access.

The terminology surrounding Open Access is confusing not least because its usage is evolving. In the current jargon, “Gold” Open Access refers to publication that is free to access at the journal. The principal alternative is “Green” Open Access, which means that free access is offered through depositing the paper in some form of repository separate from the journal. Some astronomical journals allow authors to deposit their articles on arXiv, for example, which is probably the main way in which astrophysicists achieve Green Open Access.

Nowadays “Gold” Open Access refers to anything that is made available freely by a journal regardless of whether an APC is charged or not. The Diamond Open Access provided by the Open Journal of Astrophysics is thus a special case of Gold Open Access. A classification in which Diamond and Platinum are subdivisions of Gold must confuse the heck out of chemists, but that’s where we are at the moment. At least it’s not as bad as in astrophysics where the only terms used to describe chemical elements are hydrogen, helium and “metals”…

While I am glad to see the AAS move its journals into Open Access configurations, I can’t agree with the level of APC. The Open Journal of Astrophysics may be relatively small but it has plenty of capacity for growth while remaining entirely free. The more people realize that it costs tens of dollars rather than thousands to publish a paper the more likely it is that they’ll see the moral case for Diamond Open Access.

A Second Gravitational Wave Source!

Posted in The Universe and Stuff with tags , , on June 16, 2016 by telescoper

I was travelling back from Cambridge on the train yesterday afternoon when I saw the announcement that the Advanced LIGO team had found a second gravitational wave source. Actually, I knew this one was coming – the event actually registered last Christmas – but I had forgotten that it was to be announced at the American Astronomical Society meeting that’s happening now in San Diego. There’s also a second possible discovery, but with much lower signal-to-noise.

The full discovery paper can be found here, from which I have taken this figure:


You can find the arXiv version here.
TheĀ  signal shown above, code-named GW151226, like the previous one, appears to be from a black hole binary coalescence but it involves two black holes of rather lower masses (about 14 and 8 solar masses respectively). This means that the timescale is rather longer and so more orbits can be observed. It may not look visually as clear as the first source, GW150914, which involved black holes with masses in the region of 30 solar masses, but it’s a clear detection and it’s also interesting that the models suggest that at least one of the black holes has a significant spin. Interesting!

So, that’s two sources. Now we can do statistics! I was wondering last night how long it will take before every individual discovery like this is no longer reported. The same thing happened with the first few extra-solar planets but now that we have thousands, it’s only a subset – those that might plausibly be similar to Earth – that get press attention. At the current rate of discovery gravitational-wave sources may well become quite common over the next few years. In fact a reasonable prediction for when LIGO is switched on again at the end of the summer that there might be a detection every week or so. The era of gravitational wave astronomy is definitely upon us!

Actually from my point of view the really interesting challenge is to make full use of the low signal-to-noise detections that are probable sources but with some uncertainty. I hope to write a blog post soon about how Bayesian methods can help a great deal with that.

Anyway, that’s all I’ve got time for right now. After three days in Cambridge as External Examiner, I now have to chair our undergraduate finalist examination board here at Sussex. So I’ll just say congratulations again to the LIGO team. Great stuff.